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By M. Jens. Southern Methodist University.

We may not vote for a gay person for public office because of our negative stereotypes about gays buy cefpodoxime 100 mg cheap, and we may avoid people from other religions or those with mental illness because of our prejudices buy cheap cefpodoxime 200 mg. Research has found purchase cefpodoxime 100mg without prescription, for instance, that attractive people are actually more sociable, more popular, and less lonely than less attractive individuals Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. And, consistent with the stereotype that women are “emotional,‖ women are, on average, more empathic and attuned to the emotions of others than are men (Hall [14] & Schmid Mast, 2008). Group differences in personality traits may occur in part because people act toward others on the basis of their stereotypes, creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. A self-fulfilling prophecyoccurs when our expectations about the personality characteristics of others lead us to behave toward those others in ways that make those beliefs come true. If I have a stereotype that attractive people are friendly, then I may act in a friendly way toward people who are attractive. This friendly behavior may be reciprocated by the attractive person, and if many other people also engage in the same positive behaviors with the person, in the long run he or she may actually become friendlier. But even if attractive people are on average friendlier than unattractive people, not all attractive people are friendlier than all unattractive people. And even if women are, on average, more emotional than men, not all men are less emotional than all women. Social psychologists believe that it is better to treat people as individuals rather than rely on our stereotypes and prejudices, because stereotyping and prejudice are always unfair and often inaccurate (Fiske, 1989; Stangor, [15] 1995). Furthermore, many of our stereotypes and prejudices occur out of our awareness, such that we do not even know that we are using them. Implicit Association Test You might want to test your own stereotypes and prejudices by completing the Implicit Association Test, a measure of unconscious stereotyping. Because our primitive ancestors needed to accurately separate members of their own kin group from those of others, categorizing people into “us‖ (the ingroup) and “them‖ (the outgroup) was useful and even necessary (Neuberg, [16] Kenrick, & Schaller, 2010). And the positive emotions that we experience as a result of our Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. We may gain social identity as members of our university, our sports teams, our religious and racial groups, and many other groups. But the fact that we may use our stereotypes does not mean that we should use them. Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination, whether they are consciously or unconsciously applied, make it difficult for some people to effectively contribute to society and may create both [18] mental and physical health problems for them (Swim & Stangor, 1998). In some cases getting beyond our prejudices is required by law, as detailed in the U. Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Equal Opportunity Employment Act of 1972, and the Fair Housing Act of 1978. There are individual differences in prejudice, such that some people are more likely to try to control and confront their stereotypes and prejudices whereas others apply them more freely [19] (Czopp, Monteith, & Mark, 2006; Plant & Devine, 1998). For instance, some people believe in group hierarchies—that some groups are naturally better than others—whereas other people are more egalitarian and hold fewer prejudices (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999; Stangor & Leary, [20] 2006). The tendency to hold stereotypes and prejudices and to act on them can be reduced, for instance, through positive interactions and friendships with members of other groups, through practice in avoiding using [21] them, and through education (Hewstone, 1996). Research Focus: Forming Judgments of People in Seconds Research has demonstrated that people can draw very accurate conclusions about others on the basis of very [22] limited data. Ambady and Rosenthal (1993) made videotapes of six female and seven male graduate students while they were teaching an undergraduate course. The courses covered diverse areas of the college curriculum, including humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. For each teacher, three 10-second video clips were taken: 10 seconds from the first 10 minutes of the class, 10 seconds from the middle of the class, and 10 seconds from the last 10 minutes of the class. Ambady and her colleagues then compared the ratings of the participants who had seen the teacher for only 30 seconds with the ratings of the same instructors that had been made by students who had spent a whole semester with the teacher, and who had rated her at the end of the semester on scales such as ―Rate the quality of the section overall‖ and ―Rate section leader‘s performance overall. You can see that the correlations are all positive, and that many of them are quite large. The conclusion is that people are sometimes able to draw accurate impressions about other people very quickly. Half a minute: Predicting teacher evaluations from thin slices of nonverbal behavior and physical attractiveness. If the finding that judgments made about people in 30 seconds correlate highly with judgments made about the same people after a whole semester surprises you, then perhaps you may be even more surprised to hear that [23] we do not even need that much time. Indeed, Willis and Todorov (2006) found that even a tenth of a second was enough to make judgments that correlated highly with those same judgments made by other people who were given several minutes to make the judgments. Other research has found that we can make accurate [24] judgments, for instance, about our perceptions of salespersons (Ambady, Krabbenhoft, & Hogan, 2006) and [25] about the sexual orientation of other people (Ambady, Hallahan, & Conner, 1999), in just a few seconds. Taken together, this research shows that we are well able to form initial impressions of others quickly and often quite accurately. Close Relationships One of the most important tasks faced by humans is to develop successful relationships with others.

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Which of the following would be a typical role tend to be higher than those for managed of a nurse in a primary care center? Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care cheap 200mg cefpodoxime amex, 7th Edition quality cefpodoxime 100 mg. A(n) is a person who enters a institution healthcare facility and stays there for more than 24 hours purchase cefpodoxime 200 mg on-line. Community health nursing practice that and are often open at times other than emphasizes holistic healthcare, health traditional office hours. A(n) is a member of the collabo- tion and for treatment of chemical rative team trained in techniques that improve dependency pulmonary function and oxygenation. Provide 24-hour services and hot lines for people who are suicidal, who are abusing e. Rural health centers who required surgery or complicated treatments, or who were having babies m. Primary care centers illnesses, minor surgical procedures, Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. The type of care provided to homebound physician ill, disabled, or elderly patients to allow the primary caregiver to have some time 23. Seeks to restore function or prevent away from the responsibilities of day-to- further disability in a patient after an day care injury or illness 14. Counsels patients and family members major source of health assessment, and informs them of, and refers them health education, and emergency care to, various community resources for the nation’s children. Responsible for the diagnosis of illness system affected the role of the hospital as a and medical or surgical treatment of provider of healthcare services? Help nurses provide direct care to patients; titles include nursing assistants, orderlies, attendants, or technicians 4. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Define the term fragmentation of care and its the help from the home care agency has been effect on the healthcare system: a blessing, but I need more help and some other equipment now, and our insurance com- pany doesn’t cover these things. Plus, now the doctor says that his condition has really wors- ened and he probably has 6 months or less to live. Ritchie appears overwhelmed with her home situation and may be suffering from “caregiver burnout. Think about a group of individuals in your community that is underserved and lacks access to nursing resources. What would be a successful outcome for this and the backgrounds of the patients seeking patient? Research how the clinic is funded and how the staff is reimbursed for its services. Look at the promotional materials for a local and/or ethical/legal competencies are most healthcare plan and interview people on the likely to bring about the desired outcome? Compare the roles and responsibilities of a physical therapist versus an occupational ther- 4. What resources might be helpful for apist, a physician versus a physician assistant, Mrs. Write down the responsibilities of each professional, where they overlap to provide continuity of care for the patient, and where they diverge to Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Which of the following healthcare providers is pneumonia but refuses to stay for treatment. Which of the following statements best describes the use of the word ambulatory in c. The patient remains overnight but is not performed by the nurse upon discharging a bed bound. Coordinating future care for the patient a nurse need to ensure continuity of care? Writing any orders for future home visits assistance to meet the needs of patients and that may be necessary for the patient their families d. The ability to establish trusting professional ing physician relationships with patients, family caregivers, and healthcare professionals in different 3. When patients are transferred within or practice settings among healthcare settings, which of the c.

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If you find that your items have large gaps in difficulty (such as no items ranked between 25 and 55) buy generic cefpodoxime 100mg line, try to think of some more items to fill in the gaps — you don’t want to make too large of a step all at once buy discount cefpodoxime 200 mg on-line. Worksheet 9-7 Arranging Materials for My Staircase of Fear Fearful Activity Fear Rating (0–100) You can obtain extra copies of these forms at www buy discount cefpodoxime 200 mg online. Surveying sample staircases of fear Everyone’s fears and worries are a little different, but they frequently have much in common as well. Therefore, it may help you to see a variety of staircases that are typical of many of the clients we’ve seen. They can help you get started, but remember that your own staircase is unique to you. So when she has a trip planned, she packs weeks in advance and repeatedly calls for reservation reconfir- mation. Worksheet 9-8 Lydia’s Staircase of Fear Planning a trip to Europe for the family (90) Allowing my son to take the trip with his senior class (85) Making myself go buy new bedroom furniture (80) Going for a day without asking my husband if he loves me (70) Going for a day without asking my husband if I look okay (60) Putting off packing for a trip until the day before (50) Going two days without calling my mother to check on her (45) Reconfirming my travel plans once instead of my usual ten times (40) Stopping asking my son about his homework every day (30) Inviting my friend Rebecca to lunch (20) Imagining having a check bounce (15) Leaving the dishes in the sink overnight (10) Larry is scared to death of flying. Forced to fly for business, he’s so anxious that he has three drinks at the airport bar before he boards. After he’s on the plane, he has three more drinks and can barely walk off the plane when it lands. Watching the bags go around and around on the baggage claim belt makes him nauseous. The next morning, Larry suffers through a board meeting with his head pounding and his stomach churning. A fistful of aspirin and frequent trips to the bathroom convince him that he has a problem. His panic attacks consist of sweating, rapid heartbeat, and a horrible tightness in his chest. He shops for groceries late at night when few people are around, and he makes all other pur- chases on the Internet so that he can avoid shopping malls. He feels worst in places in which he thinks he may have trouble escaping, such as crowded movie theaters. If your anxiety includes significant physical symptoms such as difficulty breathing and changes in heart rate, you should consult with your medical doctor prior to treating the anxiety on your own or even with a counselor or therapist. Using the infor- mation you’ve recorded and the samples in the previous section as a guide, you can build your Staircase of Fear. Continue filling in Worksheet 9-11, writing activities in the order of the degree of fear they carry. Try to make your steps reasonably evenly spaced in terms of the amount of fear involved. Thus, if you rate one step a 25, your next step ideally should have a ranking of 30 to 35. For example, if your fear involves getting ill, we don’t particularly advise you expose yourself to deadly viruses. Climbing Your Staircase After you develop your first Staircase of Fear (see the previous section), it’s time to face your fear directly. It will be hard, but if you take care to focus on each step as it comes and climb slowly, you’re likely to succeed. Remember, if you find the process too difficult, consult a mental health professional. After constructing his Staircase of Fear, Jason’s ready for the first step in confronting his fear, which requires him to talk to a female sales clerk. After he feels a little calmer, Jason approaches the clerk and asks for directions to customer service. Because he feels pretty anxious during this brief conversation, he knows he needs to repeat this step a number of times before he’s ready to move on to the next step in his staircase. Jason spends much of the afternoon in the mall going from one clerk to another in various stores. By the end of the day, he chats easily with a clerk and feels only a fraction of his pre- vious anxiety. Jason knows he needs to continue with this step, but he’s also ready to take on the next one. Jason tracks his progress in the Climb to the Top Exercise shown in Worksheet 9-12. After each attempt at a fearful activity, he records how much anxiety he experiences and jots down his thoughts. He repeats the activity until his anxiety decreases by at least 50 percent, and then he moves to the next step. Worksheet 9-12 Jason’s Climb to the Top Exercise Activity Anxiety Ratings: 0 (no fear) to 100 (terrified) Talking to a female store clerk 30, 30, 25, 20, 20, 15, 10, 10: This was tougher than I thought it would be at first, but it got to be kind of fun. Chapter 9: Facing Feelings: Avoiding Avoidance 143 Activity Anxiety Ratings: 0 (no fear) to 100 (terrified) Volunteering to be on the social 65, 70, 70, 60, 30, 30: This started out committee at work and going a lot harder than I thought it would be, to the meetings but it didn’t take too long to come down.

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