By T. Gunock. United Theological Seminar.

The clinical presentation of the vasculitides in large part depends on the particular vessels involved order promethazine 25mg amex. Diseases characterized by small vessel involvement may present with skin manifestations (purpura) cheap promethazine 25 mg. Immune complex formation and deposition likely contributes to the pathogenesis of lupus vasculitis generic promethazine 25mg. Autoantibodies have also been seen with cryoglobulinemia, which can be seen with certain infections or other rheumatic diseases like lupus. Cryoglobulins are immun- globulins that precipitate in the cold, usually below 4 Celsius. They are categorized as type 1, 2, or 3, depending on the presence of a mononclonal component within the cryoglobulin itself. Both type 2 and 3 cryoglobulins contain a polyclonal component, but type 2 cryoglob- ulins also contain a monoclonal component. Type 2 and 3 cryoglobulins can be detected in the sera of patients with systemic vasculitis caused by hepatitis C. In hepatitis C- associated cryoglobulinemia, an untoward immune response to hepatitis C infection results in the formation of immune complexes that deposit in the vessel wall. The clinical manifestations of cryoglobulinemia caused by hepatitis C include skin disease with rash, and renal involvement owing to deposition of cryoglobulin complexes in the glomerulus, causing an abnormal urinalysis and renal function. Manifestations of cryoglobulinemia in lupus include skin and kidney disease, resulting from immune complex formation and activation of complement. Higher titers are generally associated with more destructive disease but titers do not correlate with disease activity; patients with higher titers may have a worse prognosis. One of the current prevailing theories regarding the development of autoimmune disease in general is that exposure to an unspecified antigen, in a genetically predisposed individual, results in disease. This interaction then leads to secretion of cytokines that help to promote the disease state. It remains one of the best examples of an association between a genetic marker and disease (18). Cytokines react with specific cellular receptors and exert their effects on multiple cell types, including the cells from which they are released. Interactions between cytokines and their receptors result in the activation of intracellular pathways that in turn lead to other biological processes. Functional classes of cytokines include immunoregulatory cytokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The identification of specific cytokines and their respective functions has helped scientists to piece together working models of the immunopathogenesis of some rheumatic diseases. Theories regarding the pathogenesis of this aberrant response include loss of tolerance, dysfunctional T-cell help, or molecular mimicry, in which shared features of the triggering antigen and self-antigen lead to an untoward immune response and resultant disease. Genetics influence the development of autoantibodies as well and many rheumatic diseases have multigenic processes at play. The products of this interaction include various cytokines, which then trigger further immune and inflammatory mediated pathways inherent in each disease. Preferential induction of autoantibody secretion in polyclonal activation by peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide: in vivo studies. Antinuclear antibodies: diagnostic markers for autoimmune diseases and probes for cell biology. Hepatitis C virus infection and vasculitis: Implications of antiviral and immunosuppressive therapies. Association of microsatellite markersnear the fibrillin 1 gene on human chromosome 15q and scleroderma in a Native American population. An approach to understanding the molecular genetics of susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. Correlation between disease phenotype and genetic hetero- geneity in rheumatoid arthritis. Key Words: Anthropometric; biochemical; clinical; dietary; dietary status; environmental; functional assessment; nutritional assessment, nutritional status 1. It discusses the difference between dietary and nutri- tional status and provides some historical perspectives on nutritional status assessment. The six essential components of nutrition assessment are discussed, with specific attention to the arthritic and rheumatoid diseases. Distinction Between Dietary Status and Nutritional Status Dietary status refers to the assessment of intakes of nutrients from food, beverages, and supplements in relation to a reference standard, such as the dietary reference intakes. Malnutrition may result from inadequate intake, malabsorption, excess excretion of nutrients, and inborn errors of metabolism. Overnutrition contributes to obesity and increases the severity of other diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, and occurs among individuals of all ages. Biochemical assessment has become increasingly standardized as reference materials have become available, and automated assays have become popular.

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The main function of casparian strips in the endodermal cells is to prevent the re-entry of water into the cortex once water entered the xylem tissue buy promethazine 25mg with visa. Pericycle Pericycle is the outermost layer of the stele and lies inner to the endodermis buy generic promethazine 25 mg. The tissue generic 25mg promethazine mastercard, which is present between the xylem and the phloem, is called conjunctive tissue. Primary structure of dicotyledonous root - Bean root The transverse section of the dicot root (Bean) shows the following plan of arrangement of tissues from the periphery to the centre. It is made up of a single layer of parenchyma cells which are arranged compactly without intercellular spaces. These cells are loosely arranged with intercellular spaces to make gaseous exchange easier. Though chloroplasts are absent in the cortical cells, starch grains are stored in them. The radial and the inner tangential walls of endodermal cells are thickened with suberin. But these casparian strips are absent in the endodermal cells which are located opposite to the protoxylem elements. These thin- walled cells without casparian strips are called passage cells through which water and mineral salts are conducted from the cortex to the xylem elements. Water cannot pass through other endodermal cells due to the presence of casparian thickenings. Pericycle Pericycle is generally a single layer of parenchymatous cells found inner to the endodermis. Anatomy of monocot and dicot stems Primary structure of monocot stem - Maize stem The outline of the maize stem in transverse section is more or less circular. Internal structure of monocotyledonous stem reveals epidermis, hypodermis, ground tissue and vascular bundles. The continuity of this layer may be broken here and there by the presence of a few stomata. Hypodermis A few layer of sclerenchymatous cells lying below the epidermis constitute the hypodermis.. Ground tissue There is no distinction into cortex, endodermis, pericycle and pith. The entire mass of parenchymatous cells lying inner to the hypodermis forms the ground tissue. The cells of the ground tissue next to the hypodermis are smaller in size, polygonal in shape and compactly arranged. Towards the centre, the cells are loosely arranged, rounded in shape and bigger in size. Vascular bundles Vascular bundles are scattered in the parenchymatous ground tissue. Each vascular bundle is surrounded by a sheath of sclerenchymatous fibres called bundle sheath. Vascular bundles are numerous, small and closely arranged in the peripheral portion. Towards the centre, the bundles are comparatively large in size and loosely arranged. It can be distinguished into an outer crushed protophloem and an inner metaphloem. The two metaxylem vessels are located at the upper two arms and one or two protoxylem vessels at the base. In a mature bundle, the lowest protoxylem disintegrates and forms a cavity known as protoxylem lacuna. Primary structure of dicotyledonous stem - Sunflower stem Internal structure of dicotyledonous stem reveals epidermis, cortex and stele. Inner to the hypodermis, a few layers of chlorenchyma cells are present with conspicuous intercellular spaces. The cells of this layer are barrel shaped and arranged compactly without intercellular 92 Epidermal hair Epidermis Hypodermis Cortex Endodermis Pericycle Vascular bundle Pith Ground plan Epidermal hair Cuticle Epidermis Collenchyma Chlorenchyma Cortex Resin duct Parenchyma Starch sheath Bundle cap Primary phloem Cambium Metaxylem Protoxylem Pith Primary medullary ray A sector enlarged Fig. Since starch grains are abundant in these cells, this layer is also known as starch sheath. Pericycle Pericycle is the layers of cells that occur between the endodermis and vascular bundles. In the stem of sunflower (Helianthus), a few layers of sclerenchyma cells occur in patches outside the phloem in each vascular bundle.

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It does generic 25 mg promethazine amex, however order 25 mg promethazine with mastercard, require the exclusion of other forms of juvenile arthritis that do not have validated classification criteria discount 25 mg promethazine with visa. Another major difference is the particular application and use of the term rheumatoid. Utilizing the term juvenile idiopathic arthritis several subtypes were identified including an undifferentiated category (14). This international classification was subsequently revised twice, in 1997 (15) and 2001 (16). Those patients who fulfilled more then one subtype criteria or did not fulfill any subtype criteria were categorized under the subtype of undifferentiated arthritis. Tables 1 and 2 provide a summary of the three main classification systems and delineate their major differences. Each of the above seven subgroups has detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria (1416). Based on analysis of 34 reported epidemiological studies from 1966 to 2002(18), the incidence varies from 0. The major factors contributing to the wide variations included diagnostic difficulties, the use of different definitions, differences in case ascertainment (community-based vs case studies), and definition of the study population. Its most common presentation is monoarthritis affecting one knee, which occurs in almost half of all affected patients. These patients do not usually complain of any significant pain and most often remain quite functional (19,20). Extra-articular manifestations are extremely rare with the exception of chronic uveitis. Some children will develop change in vision, photophobia, or pain and redness in the eyes later in the course. The risk is never absent but uveitis usually develops in the first 5 to 7 years after onset. Patients require regular ophthalmological evaluations so early treatment may be implemented, usually with glucocorticoid ophthalmic drops with or without mydriatic agents. Localized growth disturbance is one of the important complications that require special attention in both this variety and other forms of arthritis. Both are more often seen in females with the former being more common during late childhood and adolescence, whereas the latter is more common during early childhood. Other cosmetic effects such as facial asymmetry or bird face deformity can be seen in chronic disease. However, the initial presentation is often nonspecific and the child is considered to have a fever of unknown origin. Systemic features usually precede the development of arthritis, which prompts extensive assessment to rule out a malignancy or an infectious disease. This form of arthritis is the least common of the chronic arthritides of childhood. It has no definite age peak at onset and in contrast to other forms of arthritis is seen equally in both males and females (17,35). Almost all patients present with fever and are usually ill at onset with systemic features overshadowing articular symptomatology. Several weeks, often even months, may pass before arthritis develops and then dominates the clinical picture. The fever is classi- cally quotidian or double quotidian (two peaks daily) and the temperature rises to 39C or higher with a rapid decline to baseline or below. The fever may be noted at any time during the day but most often occurs toward late afternoon and early evening and is often accompanied by the typical rash. This rash, initially described by Boldero in 1933 (36) consists of evanescent discrete salmon-pink polymorphous macules measuring 2 to 5 mm in size. It is most often not pruritic and usually occurs on the trunk and proximal extremities but may also be seen on the face. Other systemic features include symmetrical enlargement of the cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes, and hepatosplenomegaly sometimes causing abdominal distention. Nonspecific hepatitis can be seen in the context of active systemic disease but chronic changes are rare. Pericarditis and pleuritis may cause chest pain and dyspnea, but asymptomatic pericardial effusions are most common. This complication has been reported in European patients with chronic arthritis but it is rarely reported in North America. It may be triggered by an intercurrent infection or after medication changes but it is not clear if such triggers are just coincidental. Treatment with high-dose mythelprednisolone and cyclosporine is required with intensive medical care (3942). Psoriatic Arthritis Chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis in the juvenile age group is known as psoriatic arthritis. This diagnosis is challenging when the arthritis precedes the development of the skin lesions (psoriatic arthritis sine psoriasis).

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Occasionally buy cheap promethazine 25 mg, a nasogastric tube is needed for enteral feeding of the malnourished child or total parenteral nutrition for the medically unstable patient buy generic promethazine 25 mg on-line. Other factors that need to be considered in patients with decreased intake include depression purchase promethazine 25mg on-line, eating disorders, neglect and abuse, and socioeconomic factors. Parents often implement unconventional dietary regimens without consulting a physician. Not only do such practices cause an economic burden, they also may be injurious and interfere with standard therapy (82,109). Sometimes, parents implement such regimens in combination with conventional therapy, but on occasion these remedies are the only therapy provided to the child, and then lead to significant adverse effects (109). Other than scattered case reports, there are no published population-based studies that estimate the prevalence of food-related chronic arthritis in the pediatric age group (82). The efficacy and safety of bispho- sphonates in children are unknown and require further evaluation with randomized, controlled, long-term trials. Muscu- loskeletal adverse effects include transient skeletal pain, epiphyseal and metaphyseal radiologic sclerosis in growing bones, and mandibular osteonecrosis. Other supplements that provide clear benefits include multivitamins and folic acid. Patients receiving methotrexate require folic acid supplementation to minimize the occurrence of oral ulcers. Control of underlying chronic inflammation usually corrects the anemia of chronic disease, however, iron supplementation may be beneficial if iron-deficiency anemia coexists (i). Occasionally, recombinant human erythropoietin is considered for the treatment of anemia in rheumatic diseases (116). A dietician should be part of the rheumatology team and should be consulted when there is concern about nutritional deficits or the presence of other medical disorders that require dietary modifications. Adequate daily caloric intake is essential to ensure a healthy nutritional status. However, there may be potential benefits for increased fish intake and fish-oil supplements but further studies are needed. Supplementation with daily requirements of vitamins or other nutrients may be required to ensure adequate intake of the daily age recommendations. Swimming and nonweight-bearing exercises can improve range of motion and function of joints, restore cardiovascular fitness, facilitate weight loss in overweight patients, and enhance muscle tone and facilitate increased lean body mass. Discussing medication comprehensively with patients and parents helps them to anticipate and minimize side effects. Folic acid supplementation is useful to decrease the side effects of methotrexate such as oral ulcerations, nausea, and vomiting. Limiting the development of osteoporosis in patients receiving high-dose corticos- teroids may be accomplished by ensuring the needed daily requirements of vitamin D and calcium. Early diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis is essential for treatment and prevention of morbid complications such as vertebral compression fractures. Anemia may be corrected with adequate treatment of the underlying disorder but iron supplementation for coexisting iron-deficiency anemia should be considered. Counseling for depression and eating disorders should be considered in patients with anorexia or obesity. It is vital to address the risk of unconventional dietary remedies, socioeconomic status, and/or issues of child neglect or abuse. The association of antinuclear antibodies with the chronic iridocyclitis of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (Stills disease). The development of classification criteria for children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Proposal for the development of classification criteria for idiopathic arthritides of childhood. Revision of the proposed classification criteria for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Durban, 1997. International League of Associations for Rheuma- tology Classification of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Second Revision, Edmonton, 2001. Patterns of joints involvement at onset differentiate oligoarticular juvenile psoriatic arthritis from pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The early pattern of joint involvement predicts disease progression in children with oligoarticular (pauciarticular) juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with antinuclear antibody-positive juvenile idiopathic arthritis constitute a homogeneous subgroup irrespective of the course of joint disease. Methotrexate for resistant chronic uveitis in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Incidence and outcomes of uveitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, a synthesis of the literature. Frequency of abnormal hand and wrist radiographs at time of diagnosis of polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Resorption of the temporomandibular candela bone according to subtypes of juvenile chronic arthritis. Evidence for intravascular coagulation in systemic onset, but not polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

The treadmill test was perfomed according to the Bruce symptom-limited protocol in the morning and in the fasting state at the trough of drugs activity (12h after last intake of ivabradine and 24h after last intake of Bs) order 25mg promethazine free shipping. Nonparametric criteria were used to measure the significance of the differences between mean values: the Wilcoxon criterion for dependent variables and Mann- Whitney criterion for independent variables cheap promethazine 25 mg on line. Correlation analysis was performed using Pearsons scale and Spearmans rank correlation test purchase promethazine 25 mg amex. Results Baseline characteristics of patients in Group 1 and 2 are presented in the Table 1. By M2 it improved in Group 1 (p<0,05, compared to M0), but didnt change in Group 2. The main reasons of treadmill test termination at M0 in groups 1 and 2 were fatigue and dyspnoe (64% and 58%, correspondingly), while ischemia was registered in 25% and 18% of patients (all p>0,05). The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Postmyocardial infarction remodeling and coronary reserve: effects of ivabradine and beta blockade therapy. Ivabradine improves coronary flow reserve in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Feedforward control of coronary blood flow via coronary beta-receptor stimulation. This advantage is achieved at the cost of accuracy due to simplified assumptions concerning vessel shape. Keywords: wall shear stress, coronary artery disease, Hagen-Poiseuille, computational fluid dynamics. But the Hagen-Poiseuille law grossly simplifies vascular geometry and flow in complex vascular beds by assuming non-tapering, non-bending (straight) and non-bifurcating vascular segments with cylindrical rigid walls and steady laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid. The assessment of vascular remodeling was based on the clinical judgment of experienced cardiologists. The three-dimensional complex coronary artery trees (see figure 1 A) were reconstructed from biplane angiograms by a validated algorithm developed in- house, which is described in detail elsewhere [6,7,8]. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess deviations from a normal distribution. Group differences were assessed by a t-test in normally distributed data and the Mann-Whitney U test otherwise. This is surprising in view of the many reductionist idealizations regarding geometry and flow underlying this approach as boundary conditions. These built-in components induce secondary flow and recirculation regions and generate a pressure loss that depends in a non-linear way on flow rate. The identical assumptions concerning inlet flow rate and flow division at bifurcations for both approaches should have no impact on the comparison. However, in practice, the use of the Hagen- Poiseille law is hampered by two-dimensional diameter assessment and incorrect estimates of flow division at bifurcations. Continuous cardiac pulsation is associated with local deformation of the coronary arteries. We did not consider these effects here, since they are thought to be negligible in measurements averaged over the heart cycle [10,14] and do not comply with the Hagen-Poiseille approach. The assumption of a rigid wall is acceptable for clinical studies of atherosclerosis [3,11,15]. The impact of non-Newtonian blood behavior on flow patterns was thoroughly investigated in prior studies [10,15] and should have no impact on the comparison. Non-dimensional modeling in flow simulation studies of coronary arteries including side-branches: a novel diagnostic tool in coronary artery disease. Conclusion: Calculation of wall shear stress in coronary arteries by numerical simulation is not sensitive to small changes in outlet boundary conditions. The relation of Qbranch1 to Qbranch2 is related to branch diameter (D) by a power law with exponents (E) which was experimentally determined for coronary arteries between 2. The three- dimensional complex coronary artery trees were reconstructed from biplane angiograms by a validated algorithm developed in-house, which is described in detail elsewhere [6-8]. Left: and linear regression analysis of flow rates in vessel segments calculated with two different exponents of the power law (2. Values below color bar are surface averaged mean differences with standard deviations. Linear regression analysis of flow rates in vessel segments calculated with two different exponents of the power law (2. Discussion We found that calculation of wall shear stress in coronary arteries by numerical simulation is not sensitive to small changes in outlet boundary conditions. The exponent depends on outlet conditions and is related to expansion in cross-sectional area. In coronary vascular beds cross-sectional vessel area expands but is not uniform such that exponents increase from the large epicardial arteries to the capillary bed [4;10].

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Su2 peroxide is generated by oxidases via one-electron reduction of oxygen and the oxidation of their substrates promethazine 25 mg overnight delivery. It is the only enzyme whose primary function is generating superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide generic promethazine 25 mg with visa, mainly for preventing the transfer of pathogens and for cellular bactericidal function[12 buy promethazine 25 mg overnight delivery, 13]. Mitochondrial electron transport chain Mitochondrion is the site of eukaryotic oxidative metabolism. It contains the enzymes need ed for converting pyruvate into Acetyl-CoA, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) and for fatty acid oxidation. Along this electron transport, molecular oxygen is the final electron acceptor, which will be then reduced to H O [14, 15]. When mito chondria cannot further extract oxygen, cell and tissue oxygen levels rise, decreasing the tis sue extraction of oxygen from the blood. This results in tissue vascularity reduction, which may be associated with peripheral vascular disease and, in time, chronic tissue hypoxia and ischemia [9]. Antioxidant defenses in the organism As a small part the oxygen consumed for aerobic processes will be converted into superox ide anion [16], which will have to be scavenged or converted into less reactive (and harmful) molecules. Antioxidant vitamins such as A, C, E and alpha-lipoic acid are among these mechanisms. Here we will review the ones that have been related to oxidative stress in diabetes. In this process, once glucose enters the cells, it is phosphorylated to form glucose-6-phos phate, a reaction mediated by hexocinases. The polyol pathway The family of aldo-keto reductase enzymes catalyzes the reduction of a wide variety of car bonyl compounds to their respective alcohols. Aldo-keto reductase has a low affinity (high Km) for glu cose, and at the normal glucose concentrations, metabolism of glucose by this pathway is a very small percentage of total glucose metabolism. Hexosamine pathway When glucose levels are within normal range, a relatively low amount of fructose-6-P is drived away from glycolysis. Specific O-Glucosamine-N-Acetyl transferases use this metab olite for post-translational modification of specific serine and threonine residues on cyto plasmic and nuclear proteins [24, 28]. This autoxidation generates H O, which further contrib2 2 utes to oxidative stress [31]. H O in cells can function as a signaling molecule leading to cellular proliferation or can re2 2 sult in cell death. Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia, caused by a defect on insulin production, insulin action or both [1]. Type 1 diabetes is due to an autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic beta- cells, which usually leads to absolute insulin deficiency. This type of diabetes accounts for 5-10% of the total cases of diabetes worldwide. Type 2 diabetes represents approximately 90% of the total diabetes cases, and it is characterized by impairment in insulin action and/or abnormal insulin secretion [1]. Obesity, age, ethnic origin and familiar his tory of diabetes are among the factors that contribute to its development. Even though a strong genetic component has been recognized, genotype only establishes the conditions for the individual to be more or less prone to environmental effects and lifestyle factors [34]. The impairment of insulin actions is known as insulin resistance, presented as a suppression or retard in meta bolic responses of the muscle, liver and adipose tissue to insulin action. This failure is locat ed at the signaling pathways held after insulin binding to its specific receptor [35]. When the beta cells cannot secrete enough insulin in response to the metabolic demand caused by insulin resistance, frank diabetes type 2 occurs. This failure in the beta cell may be due to an acquired secretory dysfunction and/or a decrease in beta-cell mass [36]. All type 2 diabet ic patients have some defect in the ability of beta cells to produce or secrete insulin [37]. Insulin action and insulin resistance Once secreted to the portal circulation, insulin is transported to peripheral tissues, on which it will exert mainly anabolic actions [38]. Insulin starts its action by binding to insulin recep tor, a transmembrane protein belonging to protein tyrosine kinase activity receptors super family, which can autophosphorylate. This initiates a series of events involving protein and membrane lipid phosphorylation, coupling proteins and cytoskeleton activity [39] [40]. As protein phosphorylation activates these signaling pathways, dephosphorylation inhibits them. Any alteration in the insulin pathway, being inefficient phosphorylation or 218 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants increment in phosphatase acticity, causes impairment in insulin action.

Inflorescence This family is characterized by the presence of head or capitulum type of inflorescence buy 25 mg promethazine otc. The number of florets in a head is variable from a few to several hundreds discount promethazine 25 mg overnight delivery, but in Echinops buy 25 mg promethazine fast delivery, the head is reduced to a single flower. In homogamous heads, all the florets are tubular as in Vernonia arborea and Ageratum mexicanum. The disc florets are generally complete, bisexual and actinomorphic, whereas the ray florets are incomplete, pistillate or neutral and zygomorphic. Calyx In many species calyx is reduced to numerous hairy appendages called pappus, arranged on top of the ovary. Corolla Petals 5, gamopetalous showing valvate aestivation, regular and tubular in disc florets and irregular and ligulate or bilabiate in ray florets. Fruit Cypsela, single seeded, dry indehiscent fruit developing from an inferior ovary. Leaf Simple, opposite, exstipulate and margins dentate showing reticulate venation. Inflorescence A terminal heterogamous head and receptacle of the head is convex and surrounded by green involucre. The tubular florets occupy the centre and the ligulate florets are found at the margins. Calyx Reduced into numerous hairy outgrowths called pappus arranged on top of ovary and persistent. Calyx Reduced into numerous hairy outgrowths called pappus arranged on top of the ovary and persistent. Oil plants Oil extracted from the seeds of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) is edible and used as a cooking medium. Oil extracted from the seeds of Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) is edible and also used in the manufacture of soap. It contains less amount of cholesterol and therefore it is recommended for heart patients. Medicinal plants The entire plant, Eclipta prostrata (Karisalankanni) is used in the preparation of bathing oil and also in the treatment of jaundice, spleen and liver disorders. The drug santonin obtained from the heads of Artemesia maritima is used for expelling intestinal round worms. Dye plants A natural red dye obtained from Carthamus tinctorius is used for dyeing silks. A yellow dye obtained from the flowers of Tagetus erecta is used for dyeing cotton. Pesticides A dried powder called Pyrethrum obtained from the flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium and C. Beverage Powder obtained from the seeds of Cichorium intybus (chicory/ kasini keerai) is mixed with coffee powder. Ornamental plants Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Tagetus petula (French marigold), Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) and Zinnia elegans are grown in gardens for their beautiful flowers. Datura stramonium) or extra axillary scorpioid cyme called rhipidium (fan shaped cyme) as in S. Androecium Stamens 5, epipetalous, alternate with the petals, usually not equal in length and filaments are inserted in the middle or basal region of corolla tube and basifixed. Anthers dithecous, introrse, usually basifixed or dorsifixed, dehiscing longitudinally or through apical pores (eg. In Schizanthus pinnatus, two stamens are fertile and three stamens are reduced to staminodes. In Lycopersicon esculentum, the fruit is a berry and in species of Datura and Petunia, the fruit is a capsule. Androecium Stamens 5, free from one another epipetalous, alternate the petals and are inserted in the middle of the corolla tube. Anthers are basifixed, dithecous with long filament, introrse and longitudinally dehiscent. Datura metal 45 Fruit Spinescent capsule opening by four apical valves with persistent calyx. Food plants Tubers of Solanum tuberosum (potato) are used as common vegetable throughout the world. Leaves and flowers of Datura stramonium are the sources of drug stramonium used to treat asthma and whooping cough. Leaves, flowers, berries of Solanum trilobatum (thoodhuvalai) are used to treat cough. Roots and leaves of Withania somnifera (Amukkara) are used to treat nervous disorder and are diuretic apart from useful tonic.

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