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The second of this trio of essays order rumalaya gel 30gr without a prescription, “Toward a Virtue-Based Normative Ethics for the Health Professions purchase rumalaya gel 30gr on-line,” invites the reader to confront the mean- ing and foundations of virtue order 30 gr rumalaya gel amex. As Pellegrino reminds us, the classical me- dieval synthesis understood virtue as excellence of character, as a trait appropriately oriented to defning ends and purposes, as an excellence of reason, not emotion, as centered in practical judgment, and as a trait acquired by practice. Pellegrino contrasts this account with Alasdair Mac- Intyre’s account, which regards virtues as dispositions or acquired quali- ties necessary (1) to achieve the internal good of practices, (2) to sustain the communities in which individuals seek the higher good of their lives, and (3) to sustain traditions necessary for the fourishing of individual lives. Despite his defense of virtue ethics, Pellegrino frankly acknowledges the difculties of virtue-based accounts: (1) virtue-based accounts tend to be circular (i. All of this leads Pellegrino to underscore that virtue-based accounts cannot stand alone and must be lodged within a more comprehensive moral phi- losophy, which he acknowledges does not now exist. This problem is com- pounded in medicine, where the Hippocratic tradition is, at best, in dis- array. The practice of medicine is marked by moral pluralism, relativism, and the privatization of morality. In the face of these challenges, Pellegrino calls physicians to an act of profession that can tie them to their engage- ment in healing, so that they can come to appreciate professional virtue in terms of the telos of the clinical encounter: the patient’s good. Pellegrino lists among the virtues that should mark the good physician: fdelity to trust and promise, benevolence, efacement of self-interest, compassion and caring, intellectual honesty, justice, and prudence. Having spoken to professional virtue in the clinical context, Pel- legrino turns in the next essay to challenges to the physician’s moral con- science. His focus is on the conficts engendered as a result of practicing medicine in an often afrmatively secular culture. This tension is rooted in the circumstance that traditional Christians know things about medical morality unrecognized within secular society. In “The Physician’s Con- science, Conscience Clauses, and Religious Belief: A Catholic Perspec- tive,” Pellegrino lays out a geography of some of the resulting moral conficts, giving special attention to the rising reluctance of the state and others to confront honestly what should count as violations of conscience. For example, although religious exemption laws and conscience clauses have protected physicians from being directly coerced to engage in abor- tion or physician-assisted suicide, there is nevertheless often a require- ment that they refer patients to others to do things the Christian physician knows to be immoral (that is, since abortion is equivalent to murder, then referring a woman to an abortionist is equivalent to referring someone to the services of a hit man, even if one will not engage directly in the mur- der oneself). In addition, there are growing constraints on religious insti- tutions, once they receive tax funds, to provide services they would recognize as immoral, though their co-religionists have been forced to pay those very taxes. Among the failures in such public policy approaches is © 2008 University of Notre Dame Press An Introduction not appreciating that institutions, in order to maintain an integrity and commitment to virtue, must preserve the character of their commitments to the particular communities that brought them into existence and sus- tain them. It is through institutions such as sectarian hospitals that indi- viduals realize their concrete lives in moral communities, with the result that the moral integrity of the individual is put at jeopardy if they are not able to protect and maintain the moral character and integrity of their institutions and their moral communities. The last section ofers Pellegrino’s analysis of the ambiguities of hu- manism, the limitations of the Hippocratic Oath, and the challenges to framing a medical ethics for the future. The frst subsection, “Humanities in Medicine,” brings together essays exploring the role of humanism in medicine and medical education. The frst essay, “The Most Humane of the Sciences, the Most Scientifc of the Humanities,” already partially quoted in this introduction, is an early manifesto that in many ways in- spired the development of humanities teaching in medical schools. It in- cludes Pellegrino’s famous synopsis of the relationship of humanities and medicine: “Medicine is the most humane of sciences, the most empiric of arts, and the most scientifc of humanities. Its subject matter is an ideal ground within which to develop the attitudes associated with the human- istic and liberally educated. As he stresses, the humanities have traditionally been recognized as quite diferent from the liberal arts. Pellegrino also stresses a point underscored by Abraham Flexner: “the pull toward specialization and scholarship” tends to transform the study of the humanities from the pursuit of wis- dom to the pursuit of information and pedantry. This point is developed further in the second essay, “The Humanities in Medical Education: Entering the Post-Evangelical Era,” where Pellegrino again emphasizes that the liberal arts, from classical times, have compassed “the intellectual skills needed to be a free man. The humani- ties must be made integral to the life of the medical student and the physi- cian. In actual practice, medical students and physicians must see how the medical humanities support the physician’s virtuous response to actual patients. The next essay locates concerns regarding humanism and the virtue of the physician in the context of Roman Catholic perspectives on medical morality. In “Agape and Ethics: Some Refections on Medical Morals from a Catholic Christian Perspective,” Pellegrino reviews the recent Roman Catholic dialogue with “the dominant cultural ideas of the time” and the competing accounts of morality and ethics which this has produced. He selects for his focus what he terms an agapeistic ethic: a virtue-based ethic which afrms charity as the principle that should structure the relation- ship between physicians and patients. With charity taken as the ordering principle of discernment in moral choice, Pellegrino places the general concerns of the humanities and the liberal arts within the more concrete focus of a particular Roman Catholic understanding. In this fashion, he gives content to the meaning of the virtuous and humane physician. He suggests as well the importance of the tie between Christian belief and vir- tuous practice. This section ends with an essay that locates the previous discussions in terms of the challenge of bringing bioethics to speak to the pressing issues of normative ethics: “Bioethics at Century’s Turn: Can Normative Ethics Be Retrieved?

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The effect of race and sex on physicians’ recom- mendations for cardiac catheterization generic rumalaya gel 30 gr without a prescription. Misunderstandings about the effects of race and sex on physicians’ referrals for cardiac catheterization cheap 30 gr rumalaya gel with visa. Did the risk of the outcome increase with the quantity or duration of the exposure? Were patients similar for demo- graphics buy rumalaya gel 30gr on line, severity, co-morbidity, and other prognostic factors? There is an excellent article by Hanley and Lippman- Hand that shows how to handle this eventuality. The maximum number of events that can be expected to occur when none have been observed is 3/n. One could expect to see as many as one adverse event in every 5 patients and still have come up with no events in the 14 patients in the initial study. The probability of no adverse events in one patient is 1 minus the probability of at least one adverse event in one patient. Another way of writing this is p(no adverse event in one patient) = 1–p(at least one adverse event in one patient). We can continue to reduce the actual adverse event rate to 1:10, and using the same process we get p(no adverse events in 14 patients) = (0. For example, studies of head-injured patients to date have shown that none of the 2700 low-risk patients, those with laceration only or bump without loss of consciousness, headache, vomiting, or change in neurological status, had any intracranial bleeding or swelling. Therefore, the largest risk of intracranial injury in these low-risk patients would be 3/2700 = 1/900 = 0. General observations on the nature of risk Most people don’t know how to make reasonable judgments about the nature of risk, even in terms of risks that they know they are exposed to. This was articu- lated in 1662 by the Port Royal monks in their treatise about the nature of risk. There 154 Essential Evidence-Based Medicine Table 13. People are more likely to risk a poor outcome if due to voluntary action rather than imposed action. They are likely to smoke and accept the associated risks because they think it is their choice rather than an addiction. Similarly, they will accept risks that they feel they have control over rather than risks controlled by others. Because of this, people are much more likely to be very upset when they find out that their medication causes a very uncommon, but previously known, side effect. One only has to read the newspapers to know that there are more stories on the front page about catastrophic accidents like plane crashes or fatal automo- bile accidents than minor automobile accidents. Patients are more willing to accept the risk of death from cancer or sudden cardiac death than death due to unforeseen complications of routine surgery. If there is a clear benefit to avoiding a particular risk, for example that one shouldn’t drink poison, patients are more likely to accept a bad outcome if they engage in that risky behavior. A major exception to this rule is cigarette smoking, because of the social nature of smoking and the addictive nature of nicotine. They are more willing to accept risk that is distributed to all people rather than risk that is biased to some people. There is a perception that man-made objects ought not to fail, while if there is a natu- ral disaster it is God’s will. Risk that is generated by someone in a position of Risk assessment 155 trust such as a doctor is less acceptable than that generated by someone not in that position like one’s neighbor. We are more accepting of risks that are likely to affect adults than of those primarily affecting children, risks that are more familiar over those that are more exotic, and random events like being struck by lightning rather than catastrophes such as a storm without adequate warning. Irving Fisher, Professor of Economics, Yale University, 1929 Learning objectives In this chapter you will learn: r the essential features of multivariate analysis r the different types of multivariate analysis r the limitations of multivariate analysis r the concept of propensity scoring r the Yule–Simpson paradox Studies of risk often look at situations where there are multiple risk factors asso- ciated with a single outcome, which makes it hard to determine whether a sin- gle statistically significant result is a chance occurrence or a true association between cause and effect. Since most studies of risk are observational rather than interventional studies, confounding variables are a significant problem. Multivari- ate analysis and propensity scores are methods of evaluating data to determine the strength of any one of multiple associations uncovered in a study. They are attempts to reduce the influence of confounding variables on the study results. Multivariate analysis answers the question “What is the importance of one risk factor for the risk of a disease, when controlling for all other risk factors that could contribute to that disease? For example, in a study of lipid levels and the risk for coronary-artery disease, it was found that after adjusting for advancing age, 156 Adjustment and multivariate analysis 157 smoking, elevated systolic blood pressure, and other factors, there was a 19% decrease in coronary heart disease risk for each 8% decrease in total cholesterol level. In studies of diseases with multiple etiologies, the dependent variable can be affected by multiple independent variables. Smoking, advancing age, ele- vated systolic blood pressure, other factors, and cholesterol levels are the inde- pendent variables. The process of multivariate analysis looks at the changes in magnitude of risk associated with each independent variable when all the other contributing independent variables are held fixed.

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Stopping smoking as well as the ac- tions mentioned above will also reduce overall cardio- Age vascular risk cheap rumalaya gel 30gr amex. If after 3 months their M > F systolic blood pressure is above 139 or the diastolic above 89 discount 30 gr rumalaya gel free shipping, treatment should be started discount 30gr rumalaya gel otc. The remainder Geography of patients and those with low or average risk should More common in the Western world. Atheromatous plaques form especially in larger vessels at areas of haemodynamic stress such as at the bifurcation Prognosis of vessels and origins of branches. It may affect younger Patients with untreated malignant hypertension have a patients, particularly diabetics and smokers. In general the risks from Arteriosclerosis, ‘hardening of the arteries’, is an age- hypertension are dependent on: related condition accelerated by hypertension. Arterial Venous This can lead to ‘unfolding of the aorta’ and aortic Position Tips of toes and Gaiter area regurgitation. With increasing severity of ischaemia the Hypertension may be the underlying cause or may be claudication distance falls. Eventually the patient develops pain at rest arterial tree, therefore associated symptoms and signs and this indicates critical arterial insufficiency and is a should be elicited, e. On examination, signs include cool, dry skin with loss of hair, thready or absent pulses in the affected areas Complications and a lack of venous filling. Prognosis Management r Five-year patency rates with femoro-distal bypass vary Risk factors should be modified where possible, stop- between 30 and 50%, aortoiliac reconstruction has a pa- ping smoking in particular may prevent further dete- tency rate of 80%. Care peri-operatively and during long-term follow-up is is- should be taken to avoid trauma. Arterioscle- An aneurysm is defined as an abnormal focal dilation of rosis in older patients is difficult to treat surgically, as an artery (see Table 2. A true aneurysm may be further subdivided stenoses or occlusions in medium-sized arteries into saccular in which there is a focal out-pouching suchastheiliac,femoralandrenalarteries;however, or fusiform where there is dilation of the whole cir- as patients often present late the disease may be too cumference of the vessel. A guide wire is inserted and then a bal- occurs following penetrating trauma when there is a loon fed over the wire and inflated within the lesion. They may dissect and cut off blood critical ischaemia or severely limiting intermittent supply to tissue or rupture with resulting haemor- claudication, because failed grafting worsens symp- rhage. In addi- r Altered flow patterns predispose to thrombus forma- tion, most patients have other conditions such as tion, which may embolise to distal arteries or cause ischaemic heart disease, diabetes and cerebrovascu- occlusion at the site of the aneurysm. Abdominal aortic aneurysms may be found incidentally as a central expansile mass on examination or as calcifi- Sex cation on an X-ray. Patients may present with a dull, aching chronic or intermittent epigastric or back pain due to expansion. Geography Rupture causes a tearing epigastric pain that radiates Becoming more common in the developed world. Occasionally a small leak ‘herald bleed’ Riskfactorsareasforatherosclerosis,includingsmoking, maycauseashorter,lesssevereepisodeofpainsomedays hypercholesterolaemia, age, sex, diabetes. More than half of aneurysms over 6 cm will rupture Pathophysiology within 2 years – thromboembolism. The arterial wall becomes thinned and is replaced with fibrous tissue and stretches to form a dilated saccular or Investigations fusiform aneurysm. Suprarenal aneurysms have a much poorer prognosis with a high risk of renal impairment. Many patients have Management concomitant ischaemic heart disease or cerebrovascular r Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a surgical disease, which affects outcome. O negative blood may be required untilbloodiscross-matched,asbloodlosscanbemas- Definition sive. Aortic dissection is defined as splitting through the en- r Surgery at a specialist centre gives the best outcome, dothelium and intima allowing the passage of blood into but patients may not be fit for transfer. If the aneurysm is too Aetiology low, or when the iliac and femoral arteries are ei- Predisposingfactorstothoracicaorticaneurysms,which ther aneurysmal or too diseased with atherosclerosis, may dissect include hypertension, atherosclerosis, bicus- a‘trouser’ bifurcation graft is used to anastomose to pid aortic valve, pregnancy, increasing age and Marfan’s the iliac or femoral arteries. In all cases there is degeneration of collagen r Asymptomatic small aneurysms should be managed and elastic fibres of the media, known as ‘cystic me- conservatively with aggressive management of hyper- dial necrosis’. Trauma, including insertion of an arterial tension and other risk factors for atherosclerosis and catheter, is also a cause. Whilst surgical techniques remain There is an intimal tear, then blood forces into the aortic the standard treatment, increasingly endovascular wall, it can then extend the split further along the wall stenting techniques are being used that can be per- of the vessel. The most com- to make the diagnosis, particularly in haemodynami- mon site for these to start is at the point of the ductus cally unstable patients. They may extend as far down as the is required, and importantly hypertension should be iliac arteries. Intravenous Dissection classically presents with excruciating sudden β-blockers, glyceryl trinitrate and hydralazine may all onset central chest pain, which may be mistaken for an be needed. The pain tends to be tear- ing, most severe at the onset and radiates through to cardiopulmonary bypass. Most patients are hypertensive at presenta- placed using a Dacron graft and the aortic valve re- tion.

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